Evolution Tnpsc Notes

Evolution is a fundamental concept in biology that refers to the process of change in all forms of life over generations. It explains how species of living organisms have changed over time and diversified into the multitude of forms we observe today. The theory of evolution, as proposed by Charles Darwin in the mid-19th century, … Read more

Neon on the periodic table

Neon is a chemical element with the symbol Ne and atomic number 10. It is a noble gas, meaning that it is chemically inert and does not react with other elements. Neon is the fifth most abundant element in the universe, and it is the second most abundant noble gas in Earth’s atmosphere. On the … Read more

How many valence electrons does phosphorus have?

Phosphorus has 5 valence electrons. Valence electrons are the electrons in the outermost shell of an atom that are available to participate in chemical bonding. Phosphorus is in group 5A of the periodic table, which means that it has 5 valence electrons. The electron configuration of phosphorus is [Ne]3s23p3. This means that the outermost shell … Read more

How to calculate the atomic mass?

There are two ways to calculate atomic mass: The formula for calculating the atomic mass of an element by averaging the masses of its isotopes is: where: For example, the atomic mass of carbon is calculated as follows: The atomic mass of an element is usually listed on the periodic table. How to find an … Read more

Petroleum Products Tnpsc

Petroleum Products Petroleum products are a broad category of products derived from crude oil. Crude oil is a fossil fuel formed from the remains of ancient marine plants and animals that lived millions of years ago. It is extracted from underground reservoirs and undergoes various refining processes to produce different petroleum products. Some common petroleum … Read more

Definition of atomic mass

The atomic mass of an atom is the average mass of all the isotopes of that element, taking into account their relative abundance. It is usually expressed in atomic mass units (amu). The atomic mass considers the sum of the masses of protons, neutrons, and electrons in the atom. The atomic mass is crucial in … Read more

Properties of matter physical and chemical Tnpsc

Matter is anything that has mass and occupies space. It exists in various forms and can undergo physical and chemical changes. Here are the properties of matter based on physical and chemical characteristics: Physical properties of matter: Chemical properties of matter:

Basics of force in physics Tnpsc

Basics of force in physics Tnpsc

Force A body needs a ‘push’ or ‘pull’ to move or to bring a moving body to rest or change its velocity. Hence this push or pull is called force. Force has both magnitude and direction. Therefore force is a vector quantity. Definition of force in physics Types of Forces Force is classified into types … Read more

Halogen lamp working principle

How does a halogen lamp work? A Halogen lamp is an incandescent lamp. It is also called Tungsten Halogen or quartz-halogen or quartz iodine lamp. It consists of a tungsten filament that is sealed in a transparent envelope. This envelope is filled with an inert gas mixture. The inert gas mixture consists of a small … Read more

Different types of battery cells and their uses

An electric cell converts chemical energy into electrical energy to produce electricity. It contains two electrodes immersed in an electrolyte called Anode and Cathode. A number of electric cells are connected together to form a battery. When a cell or battery is connected to a circuit, electrons flow from the negative terminal to the positive … Read more

* * All the Notes in this blog, are referred from Tamil Nadu State Board Books and Samacheer Kalvi Books. Kindly check with the original Tamil Nadu state board books and Ncert Books.